# Referencing QuantumATK (NanoLab)¶

If you are preparing an article using QuantumATK, please read the instructions below on how to cite the software properly. All publications where QuantumATK software has been used should include:

- ✍ A reference to the version of the software used: QuantumATK version X-XXXX.XX, Synopsys QuantumATK (https://www.synopsys.com/silicon/quantumatk.html). For example:
- QuantumATK O-2018.06
- QuantumATK 2017.2

- ✍ The most important methodology papers listed below.

### Citing QuantumATK DFT (Density Functional Theory)

- S. Smidstrup, D. Stradi, J. Wellendorff, P. A. Khomyakov, U. G. Vej-Hansen, M-E. Lee, T. Ghosh, E. Jónsson, H. Jónsson, and K. Stokbro,
*First-principles Green's-function method for surface calculations: A pseudopotential localized basis set approach*, Phys. Rev. B**96**, 195309 (2017).## Abstract | BibTeX

**Abstract:**We present an efficient implementation of a surface Green's-function method for atomistic modeling of surfaces within the framework of density functional theory using a pseudopotential localized basis set approach. In this method, the system is described as a truly semi-infinite solid with a surface region coupled to an electron reservoir, thereby overcoming several fundamental drawbacks of the traditional slab approach. The versatility of the method is demonstrated with several applications to surface physics and chemistry problems that are inherently difficult to address properly with the slab method, including metal work function calculations, band alignment in thin-film semiconductor heterostructures, surface states in metals and topological insulators, and surfaces in external electrical fields. Results obtained with the surface Green's-function method are compared to experimental measurements and slab calculations to demonstrate the accuracy of the approach. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {First-principles Green's-function method for surface calculations: A pseudopotential localized basis set approach},

author = {S. Smidstrup, D. Stradi, J. Wellendorff, P. A. Khomyakov, U. G. Vej-Hansen, M-E. Lee, T. Ghosh, E. Jónsson, H. Jónsson, and K. Stokbro},

journal = {Phys. Rev. B},

volume = {96},

pages = {195309},

year = {(2017)}

} **SG15 pseudo-potentials:**M. Schlipf and F. Gygi,*Optimization algorithm for the generation of ONCV pseudopotentials*, Comp. Phys. Comm.**196**, 36 (2015).## Abstract | BibTeX

**Abstract:**We present an optimization algorithm to construct pseudopotentials and use it to generate a set of Optimized Norm-Conserving Vanderbilt (ONCV) pseudopotentials for elements up to (Bi) (excluding Lanthanides). We introduce a quality function that assesses the agreement of a pseudopotential calculation with all-electron FLAPW results, and the necessary plane-wave energy cutoff. This quality function allows us to use a Nelder–Mead optimization algorithm on a training set of materials to optimize the input parameters of the pseudopotential construction for most of the periodic table. We control the accuracy of the resulting pseudopotentials on a test set of materials independent of the training set. We find that the automatically constructed pseudopotentials provide a good agreement with the all-electron results obtained using the FLEUR code with a plane-wave energy cutoff of approximately 60 Ry. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {Optimization algorithm for the generation of ONCV pseudopotentials},

author = {M. Schlipf and F. Gygi},

journal = {Comp. Phys. Comm.},

volume = {196},

pages = {36},

year = {(2015)}

}**PseudoDojo pseudo-potentials:**M. J. van Setten, M. Giantomassi, E. Bousquet, M. J. Verstraete, D. R. Hamann, X. Gonze and G. M. Rignanese,*The PseudoDojo: Training and grading a 85 element optimized norm-conserving pseudopotential table*, Comp. Phys. Comm.**226**, 226 (2018).## Abstract | BibTeX

**Abstract:**First-principles calculations in crystalline structures are often performed with a planewave basis set. To make the number of basis functions tractable two approximations are usually introduced: core electrons are frozen and the diverging Coulomb potential near the nucleus is replaced by a smoother expression. The norm-conserving pseudopotential was the first successful method to apply these approximations in a fully ab initio way. Later on, more efficient and more exact approaches were developed based on the ultrasoft and the projector augmented wave formalisms. These formalisms are however more complex and developing new features in these frameworks is usually more difficult than in the norm-conserving framework. Most of the existing tables of norm-conserving pseudopotentials, generated long ago, do not include the latest developments, are not systematically tested or are not designed primarily for high precision. In this paper, we present our PseudoDojo framework for developing and testing full tables of pseudopotentials, and demonstrate it with a new table generated with the ONCVPSP approach. The PseudoDojo is an open source project, building on the AbiPy package, for developing and systematically testing pseudopotentials. At present it contains 7 different batteries of tests executed with ABINIT, which are performed as a function of the energy cutoff. The results of these tests are then used to provide hints for the energy cutoff for actual production calculations. Our final set contains 141 pseudopotentials split into a standard and a stringent accuracy table. In total around 70,000 calculations were performed to test the pseudopotentials. The process of developing the final table led to new insights into the effects of both the core-valence partitioning and the non-linear core corrections on the stability, convergence, and transferability of norm-conserving pseudopotentials. The PseudoDojo hence provides a set of pseudopotentials and general purpose tools for further testing and development, focusing on highly accurate calculations and their use in the development of ab initio packages. The pseudopotential files are available on the PseudoDojo web-interface pseudo-dojo.org under the name NC (ONCVPSP) v0.4 in the psp8, UPF2, and PSML 1.1 formats. The webinterface also provides the inputs, which are compatible with the 3.3.1 and higher versions of ONCVPSP. All tests have been performed with ABINIT 8.4. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {The PseudoDojo: Training and grading a 85 element optimized norm-conserving pseudopotential table},

author = {M. J. van Setten, M. Giantomassi, E. Bousquet, M. J. Verstraete, D. R. Hamann, X. Gonze and G. M. Rignanese},

journal = {Comp. Phys. Comm.},

volume = {226},

pages = {226},

year = {(2018)}

}

### Citing QuantumATK SemiEmpirical

- K. Stokbro, D. E. Petersen, S. Smidstrup, A. Blom, M. Ipsen and K. Kaasbjerg,
*Semiempirical model for nanoscale device simulations*, Phys. Rev. B**82**, 075420 (2010).## Abstract | BibTeX

**Abstract:**We present a semiempirical model for calculating electron transport in atomic-scale devices. The model is an extension of the extended Hückel method with a self-consistent Hartree potential that models the effect of an external bias and corresponding charge rearrangements in the device. It is also possible to include the effect of external gate potentials and continuum dielectric regions in the device. The model is used to study the electron transport through an organic molecule between gold surfaces, and it is demonstrated that the results are in closer agreement with experiments than ab initio approaches provide. In another example, we study the transition from tunneling to thermionic emission in a transistor structure based on graphene nanoribbons. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {Semiempirical model for nanoscale device simulations},

author = {K. Stokbro, D. E. Petersen, S. Smidstrup, A. Blom, M. Ipsen and K. Kaasbjerg},

journal = {Phys. Rev. B},

volume = {82},

pages = {075420},

year = {(2010)}

} **Built-in parameter sets in QuantumATK SemiEmpirical:**References can be found here.

### Citing Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) Method

- M. Brandbyge, J. L. Mozos, P. Ordejón, J. Taylor, and K. Stokbro,
*Density-functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport*, Phys. Rev. B**65**, 165401 (2002).## Abstract | BibTeX

**Abstract:**We describe an ab initio method for calculating the electronic structure, electronic transport, and forces acting on the atoms, for atomic scale systems connected to semi-infinite electrodes and with an applied voltage bias. Our method is based on the density-functional theory (DFT) as implemented in the well tested SIESTA approach (which uses nonlocal norm-conserving pseudopotentials to describe the effect of the core electrons, and linear combination of finite-range numerical atomic orbitals to describe the valence states). We fully deal with the atomistic structure of the whole system, treating both the contact and the electrodes on the same footing. The effect of the finite bias (including self-consistency and the solution of the electrostatic problem) is taken into account using nonequilibrium Green’s functions. We relate the nonequilibrium Green’s function expressions to the more transparent scheme involving the scattering states. As an illustration, the method is applied to three systems where we are able to compare our results to earlier ab initio DFT calculations or experiments, and we point out differences between this method and existing schemes. The systems considered are: (i) single atom carbon wires connected to aluminum electrodes with extended or finite cross section, (ii) single atom gold wires, and finally (iii) large carbon nanotube systems with point defects. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {Density-functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport},

author = {M. Brandbyge, J. L. Mozos, P. Ordejón, J. Taylor, and K. Stokbro},

journal = {Phys. Rev. B},

volume = {65},

pages = {165401},

year = {(2002)}

} **2-Probe Setup:**D. Stradi, U. Martinez, A. Blom, M. Brandbyge, K. Stokbro,*General atomistic approach for modeling metal-semiconductor interfaces using density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function*, Phys. Rev. B**93**, 155302 (2016).## Abstract | BibTeX

**Abstract:**Metal-semiconductor contacts are a pillar of modern semiconductor technology. Historically, their microscopic understanding has been hampered by the inability of traditional analytical and numerical methods to fully capture the complex physics governing their operating principles. Here we introduce an atomistic approach based on density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function, which includes all the relevant ingredients required to model realistic metal-semiconductor interfaces and allows for a direct comparison between theory and experiments via I-Vbias curve simulations. We apply this method to characterize an Ag/Si interface relevant for photovoltaic applications and study the rectifying-to-Ohmic transition as a function of the semiconductor doping. We also demonstrate that the standard “activation energy” method for the analysis of I-Vbias data might be inaccurate for nonideal interfaces as it neglects electron tunneling, and that finite-size atomistic models have problems in describing these interfaces in the presence of doping due to a poor representation of space-charge effects. Conversely, the present method deals effectively with both issues, thus representing a valid alternative to conventional procedures for the accurate characterization of metal-semiconductor interfaces. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {General atomistic approach for modeling metal-semiconductor interfaces using density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function},

author = {D. Stradi, U. Martinez, A. Blom, M. Brandbyge, K. Stokbro},

journal = {Phys. Rev. B},

volume = {93},

pages = {155302},

year = {(2016)}

}**1-Probe Setup (for surface calculations):**S. Smidstrup, D. Stradi, J. Wellendorff, P. A. Khomyakov, U. G. Vej-Hansen, M-E. Lee, T. Ghosh, E. Jónsson, H. Jónsson, and K. Stokbro,*First-principles Green's-function method for surface calculations: A pseudopotential localized basis set approach*, Phys. Rev. B**96**, 195309 (2017).## Abstract | BibTeX

**Abstract:**We present an efficient implementation of a surface Green's-function method for atomistic modeling of surfaces within the framework of density functional theory using a pseudopotential localized basis set approach. In this method, the system is described as a truly semi-infinite solid with a surface region coupled to an electron reservoir, thereby overcoming several fundamental drawbacks of the traditional slab approach. The versatility of the method is demonstrated with several applications to surface physics and chemistry problems that are inherently difficult to address properly with the slab method, including metal work function calculations, band alignment in thin-film semiconductor heterostructures, surface states in metals and topological insulators, and surfaces in external electrical fields. Results obtained with the surface Green's-function method are compared to experimental measurements and slab calculations to demonstrate the accuracy of the approach. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {First-principles Green's-function method for surface calculations: A pseudopotential localized basis set approach},

author = {S. Smidstrup, D. Stradi, J. Wellendorff, P. A. Khomyakov, U. G. Vej-Hansen, M-E. Lee, T. Ghosh, E. Jónsson, H. Jónsson, and K. Stokbro},

journal = {Phys. Rev. B},

volume = {96},

pages = {195309},

year = {(2017)}

}**Special Thermal Displacement (STD)-Landauer**method for including electron-phonon scattering effects: T. Gunst, T. Markussen, M. L. N. Palsgaard, K. Stokbro, and M. Brandbyge,*First-principles electron transport with phonon coupling: Large scale at low cost*, Phys. Rev. B**96**, 161404(R) (2017).## Abstract | BibTeX

Phonon-assisted tunneling plays a crucial role for electronic device performance and even more so with future size down-scaling. We show how one can include this effect in large-scale first-principles calculations using a single “special thermal displacement” (STD) of the atomic coordinates at almost the same cost as elastic transport calculations, by extending the recent method of Zacharias et al. [Phys. Rev. B 94, 075125 (2016)] to the important case of Landauer conductance. We apply the method to ultrascaled silicon devices and demonstrate the importance of phonon-assisted band-to-band and source-to-drain tunneling. In a diode the phonons lead to a rectification ratio suppression in good agreement with experiments, while in an ultrathin body transistor the phonons increase off currents by four orders of magnitude, and the subthreshold swing by a factor of 4, in agreement with perturbation theory.We present an efficient implementation of a surface Green's-function method for atomistic modeling of surfaces within the framework of density functional theory using a pseudopotential localized basis set approach. In this method, the system is described as a truly semi-infinite solid with a surface region coupled to an electron reservoir, thereby overcoming several fundamental drawbacks of the traditional slab approach. The versatility of the method is demonstrated with several applications to surface physics and chemistry problems that are inherently difficult to address properly with the slab method, including metal work function calculations, band alignment in thin-film semiconductor heterostructures, surface states in metals and topological insulators, and surfaces in external electrical fields. Results obtained with the surface Green's-function method are compared to experimental measurements and slab calculations to demonstrate the accuracy of the approach. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {First-principles Green's-function method for surface calculations: A pseudopotential localized basis set approach},

author = {S. Smidstrup, D. Stradi, J. Wellendorff, P. A. Khomyakov, U. G. Vej-Hansen, M-E. Lee, T. Ghosh, E. Jónsson, H. Jónsson, and K. Stokbro},

journal = {Phys. Rev. B},

volume = {96},

pages = {195309},

year = {(2017)}

}**Photo-current module:**M. Palsgaard, T. Markussen, T. Gunst, M. Brandbyge, K. Stokbro,*Efficient first-principles calculation of phonon assisted photocurrent in large-scale solar cell devices*, arXiv: 1801.03683v1.## Abstract | BibTeX

We present a straightforward and computationally cheap method to obtain the phonon-assisted photocurrent in large-scale devices from first-principles transport calculations. The photocurrent is calculated using nonequilibrium Green's function with light-matter interaction from the first-order Born approximation while electron-phonon coupling (EPC) is included through special thermal displacements (STD). We apply the method to a silicon solar cell device and demonstrate the impact of including EPC in order to properly describe the current due to the indirect band-to-band transitions. The first-principles results are successfully compared to experimental measurements of the temperature and light intensity dependence of the open-circuit voltage of a silicon photovoltaic module. Our calculations illustrate the pivotal role played by EPC in photocurrent modelling to avoid underestimation of the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and maximum power. This work represents a recipe for computational characterization of future photovoltaic devices including the combined effects of light-matter interaction, phonon-assisted tunneling and the device potential at finite bias from the level of first-principles simulations. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {Efficient first-principles calculation of phonon assisted photocurrent in large-scale solar cell devices},

author = {M. Palsgaard, T. Markussen, T. Gunst, M. Brandbyge, K. Stokbro},

journal = {Phys. Rev. Applied},

volume = {10},

pages = {014026},

year = {(2018)}

}**Spintronics simulations:**J. M. Marmolejo-Tejada, K. Dolui, P. Lazić, P. Chang, S. Smidstrup, D. Stradi, K. Stokbro, B. Nikolić,*Proximity band structure and spin textures on both sides of topological insulator/ferromagnetic-metal interface and their charge transport probes*, Nano Lett.**17**,5626 (2017).## Abstract | BibTeX

The control of recently observed spintronic effects in topological-insulator|ferromagnetic-metal (TI|FM) heterostructures is thwarted by the lack of understanding of band structure and spin textures around their interfaces. Here we combine density functional theory with Green’s function techniques to obtain the spectral function at any plane passing through atoms of Bi2Se3 and Co or Cu layers comprising the interface. Instead of naively assumed Dirac cone gapped by the proximity exchange field spectral function, we find that the Rashba ferromagnetic model describes the spectral function on the surface of Bi2Se3 in contact with Co near the Fermi level EF0, where circular and snowflake-like constant energy contours coexist around which spin locks to momentum. The remnant of the Dirac cone is hybridized with evanescent wave functions from metallic layers and pushed, due to charge transfer from Co or Cu layers, a few tenths of an electron-volt below EF0 for both Bi2Se3/Co and Bi2Se3/Cu interfaces while hosting distorted helical spin texture wounding around a single circle. These features explain recent observation of sensitivity of spin-to-charge conversion signal at TI/Cu interface to tuning of EF0. Crucially for spin–orbit torque in TI/FM heterostructures, few monolayers of Co adjacent to Bi2Se3 host spectral functions very different from the bulk metal, as well as in-plane spin textures (despite Co magnetization being out-of-plane) due to proximity spin–orbit coupling in Co induced by Bi2Se3. We predict that out-of-plane tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in Cu|Bi2Se3|Co vertical heterostructure can serve as a sensitive probe of the type of spin texture residing at EF0. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {Proximity band structure and spin textures on both sides of topological insulator/ferromagnetic-metal interface and their charge transport probes},

author = {J. M. Marmolejo-Tejada, K. Dolui, P. Lazić, P. Chang, S. Smidstrup, D. Stradi, K. Stokbro, B. Nikolić},

journal = {Nano Lett.},

volume = {17},

pages = {5626},

year = {(2017)}

}

### Citing QuantumATK ForceField

- J. Schneider, J. Hamaekers, S. T. Chill, S. Smidstrup, J. Bulin, R. Thesen, A. Blom, and K. Stokbro,
*ATK-ForceField: a new generation molecular dynamics software package*, IOP Publishing, Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng.**25**085007 (28pp) (2017).## Abstract | BibTeX

ATK-ForceField is a software package for atomistic simulations using classical interatomic potentials. It is implemented as a part of the Atomistix ToolKit (ATK), which is a Python programming environment that makes it easy to create and analyze both standard and highly customized simulations. This paper will focus on the atomic interaction potentials, molecular dynamics, and geometry optimization features of the software, however, many more advanced modeling features are available. The implementation details of these algorithms and their computational performance will be shown. We present three illustrative examples of the types of calculations that are possible with ATK-ForceField: modeling thermal transport properties in a silicon germanium crystal, vapor deposition of selenium molecules on a selenium surface, and a simulation of creep in a copper polycrystal.The control of recently observed spintronic effects in topological-insulator|ferromagnetic-metal (TI|FM) heterostructures is thwarted by the lack of understanding of band structure and spin textures around their interfaces. Here we combine density functional theory with Green’s function techniques to obtain the spectral function at any plane passing through atoms of Bi2Se3 and Co or Cu layers comprising the interface. Instead of naively assumed Dirac cone gapped by the proximity exchange field spectral function, we find that the Rashba ferromagnetic model describes the spectral function on the surface of Bi2Se3 in contact with Co near the Fermi level EF0, where circular and snowflake-like constant energy contours coexist around which spin locks to momentum. The remnant of the Dirac cone is hybridized with evanescent wave functions from metallic layers and pushed, due to charge transfer from Co or Cu layers, a few tenths of an electron-volt below EF0 for both Bi2Se3/Co and Bi2Se3/Cu interfaces while hosting distorted helical spin texture wounding around a single circle. These features explain recent observation of sensitivity of spin-to-charge conversion signal at TI/Cu interface to tuning of EF0. Crucially for spin–orbit torque in TI/FM heterostructures, few monolayers of Co adjacent to Bi2Se3 host spectral functions very different from the bulk metal, as well as in-plane spin textures (despite Co magnetization being out-of-plane) due to proximity spin–orbit coupling in Co induced by Bi2Se3. We predict that out-of-plane tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in Cu|Bi2Se3|Co vertical heterostructure can serve as a sensitive probe of the type of spin texture residing at EF0. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {ATK-ForceField: a new generation molecular dynamics software package},

author = J. Schneider, J. Hamaekers, S. T. Chill, S. Smidstrup, J. Bulin, R. Thesen, A. Blom, and K. Stokbro},

journal = {IOP Publishing, Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng.},

volume = {25},

pages = {085007 (28pp)},

year = {(2017)}

} **Built-in potential parameter sets:**References can be found here: here.

### Citing NanoLab & NanoLab Links

- J. Schneider, J. Hamaekers, S. T. Chill, S. Smidstrup, J. Bulin, R. Thesen, A. Blom, and K. Stokbro,
*ATK-ForceField: a new generation molecular dynamics software package*, IOP Publishing, Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng.**25**085007 (28pp) (2017).## Abstract | BibTeX

ATK-ForceField is a software package for atomistic simulations using classical interatomic potentials. It is implemented as a part of the Atomistix ToolKit (ATK), which is a Python programming environment that makes it easy to create and analyze both standard and highly customized simulations. This paper will focus on the atomic interaction potentials, molecular dynamics, and geometry optimization features of the software, however, many more advanced modeling features are available. The implementation details of these algorithms and their computational performance will be shown. We present three illustrative examples of the types of calculations that are possible with ATK-ForceField: modeling thermal transport properties in a silicon germanium crystal, vapor deposition of selenium molecules on a selenium surface, and a simulation of creep in a copper polycrystal. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {ATK-ForceField: a new generation molecular dynamics software package},

author = {J. Schneider, J. Hamaekers, S. T. Chill, S. Smidstrup, J. Bulin, R. Thesen, A. Blom, and K. Stokbro},

journal = {IOP Publishing, Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng.},

volume = {25},

pages = {085007 (28pp)},

year = {(2017)}

} **Interface builder in NanoLab:**D. Stradi, L. Jelver, S. Smidstrup and K. Stokbro,*Method for determining optimal supercell representation of interfaces*, IOP Publishing, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 29, 185901 (7pp) (2017).## Abstract | BibTeX

The geometry and structure of an interface ultimately determines the behavior of devices at the nanoscale. We present a generic method to determine the possible lattice matches between two arbitrary surfaces and to calculate the strain of the corresponding matched interface. We apply this method to explore two relevant classes of interfaces for which accurate structural measurements of the interface are available: (i) the interface between pentacene crystals and the (1 1 1) surface of gold, and (ii) the interface between the semiconductor indium-arsenide and aluminum. For both systems, we demonstrate that the presented method predicts interface geometries in good agreement with those measured experimentally, which present nontrivial matching characteristics and would be difficult to guess without relying on automated structure-searching methods. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {Interface builder in NanoLab: Method for determining optimal supercell representation of interfaces},

author = {D. Stradi, L. Jelver, S. Smidstrup and K. Stokbro},

journal = {IOP Publishing, Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng.},

volume = {29},

pages = {185901 (7pp)},

year = {(2017)}

}**Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) simulation set-up using Image-dependent-Pair-Potential (IDPP):**S. Smidstrup, A. Pedersen, K. Stokbro, and H. Jónsson,*Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations*, The Journal of Chemical Physics**140**, 214106 (2014).## Abstract | BibTeX

A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used. Read more

**BibTeX:**

@article{

title = {Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) simulation set-up using Image-dependent-Pair-Potential (IDPP): Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations},

author = {S. Smidstrup, A. Pedersen, K. Stokbro, and H. Jónsson},

journal = {The Journal of Chemical Physics},

volume = {140},

pages = {214106},

year = {(2014)}

}